What does glycolysis produce? (2023)

Living things, all of which consist of one or more individual cells, can be divided intoProkaryotenjEukaryotes.

Almost all cells depend on itGlucosefor your metabolic needs, and the first step in breaking down this molecule is the series of reactions known asGlycolysis(literally "glucose split"). In glycolysis, a single molecule of glucose undergoes a series of reactions to produce a pair of pyruvate molecules and a modest amount of energy in the form ofAdenosintriphosphat (ATP).

However, the ultimate handling of these products varies from cell type to cell type. Prokaryotic organisms do not participate in thisaerobic respiration.This means that prokaryotes use molecular oxygen (O2). Instead, pyruvate suffersFermentation(Anaerobic respiration).

Some sources include glycolysis in the process of "cellular respiration" in eukaryotes as it directly precedes itaerobicrespiration (orKrebs cycleand oxidative phosphorylation in theElectron transport chain). More specifically, glycolysis itself is not an aerobic process simply because it is not dependent on oxygen and can be used as either O2is present.

However, since glycolysis is aPre-conditionaerobic respiration, insofar as it provides pyruvate for its reactions, it is obvious to know both concepts at the same time.

(Video) How many ATPs does Glycolysis produce

What exactly is glucose?

Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that serves as the primary carbohydrate in human biochemistry. In addition to oxygen, carbohydrates contain carbon (C) and hydrogen (H), with the ratio of C to H in these compounds always being 1:2.

Sugars are smaller than other carbohydrates, including starches and cellulose. In fact, glucose is often a repeating subunit, orMonomer, in these more complex molecules. Glucose itself is not made up of monomers and as such is considered a monosaccharide ("one sugar").

The formula of glucose is C6H12Ö6. The main part of the molecule consists of a hexagonal ring with five of the C atoms and one of the O atoms, the sixth and last C atom exists in a side chain with a hydroxyl containing methyl group (-CH2OH).

The glycolysis pathway

The process ofGlycolysisthat takes place in the cellZytoplasma, consists of 10 individual reactions.

It is usually not necessary to memorize the names of all intermediates and enzymes. But a firm sense of the big picture is helpful. This is not only because glycolysis is perhaps the most relevant reaction in the history of life on Earth, but also because the steps involve a number of common processes within cells, including the action of enzymes during exothermic (energetically favorable) Illustrate reactions nicely.

(Video) Cellular Respiration (UPDATED)

When glucose enters a cell, it is taken up and phosphorylated (that is, a phosphate group, often written pi, is added to it) by the enzyme hexokinase. This locks the molecule in the cell and gives it a negative electrostatic charge.

This molecule rearranges into a phosphorylated form of fructose, which then undergoes another phosphorylation step and becomes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. This molecule then splits into two similar three-carbon molecules, one of which rapidly converts into the other to produce two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

This substance rearranges into another doubly phosphorylated molecule before reversing the early addition of phosphate groups in non-consecutive steps. In each of these steps, a molecule ofAdenosindiphosphat (ADP)it occurs through the enzyme-substrate complex (the name of the structure made up of the reacting molecule and the enzyme that brings the reaction to completion).

This ADP picks up one phosphate from each of the three-carbon molecules present. Finally, two pyruvate molecules sit in the cytoplasm, ready to unfold in whatever pathway the cell needs to enter or can take.

Summary of Glycolysis: Inputs and Outputs

The only true reactant of glycolysis is a glucose molecule. During the series of reactions, two molecules, ATP and NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an electron carrier), are introduced.

(Video) Steps of glycolysis | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy

You often see the entire process of cellular respiration listed with glucose and oxygen as reactants and carbon dioxide and water as products, along with 36 (or 38) ATP. But glycolysis is only the first set of reactions, ultimately culminating in the aerobic removal of that amount of energy from glucose.

In totalfour ATP moleculesThey occur in reactions involving the three carbon components of glycolysis: two during the conversion of the 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate molecule pair into two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules, and two during the conversion of a phosphoenolpyruvate molecule pair into the two pyruvate molecules represents the end of glycolysis. All of this is synthesized through phosphorylation at the substrate level, meaning that ATP comes from the direct addition of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to ADP and is not formed as a result of any other process.

Two ATPs are required early in glycolysis, first when glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and then two steps later when fructose-6-phosphate is phosphorylated to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Therefore, the net gain of ATP in glycolysis as a result of one molecule of glucose going through the process is two molecules, which is easy to remember when you relate it to the number of pyruvate molecules produced.

In addition, in the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, two NAD+ molecules are reduced to two NADH molecules, the latter serving as an indirect source of energy as they participate in the reactions of respiration aerobics, among others.

In summary, this gives the net yield of glycolysis2 ATP, 2 pyruvate and 2 NADH. That's only about one-twentieth the amount of ATP produced in aerobic respiration, but since prokaryotes are typically much smaller and less complex than eukaryotes, with correspondingly lower metabolic requirements, they can still survive less than - ideal scheme.

(Video) Glycolysis Pathway Made Simple !! Biochemistry Lecture on Glycolysis

(Another view, of course, is that the lack ofaerobic respirationin bacteria has prevented them from evolving into larger and more diverse creatures, which is what matters).

The Fate of the Products of Glycolysis

In prokaryotes, once the glycolytic pathway is complete, the organism has played almost all of the metabolic cards it has. Pyruvate can be further metabolized to lactateFermentationor anaerobic respiration. The purpose of fermentation is not to produce lactate but to regenerate NAD+ from NADH so it can be used in glycolysis.

(Note that this is different thanAlcoholic fermentation, in which ethanol is produced from pyruvate under the action of yeast).

In eukaryotes, most pyruvate enters the first steps of aerobic respiration: the Krebs cycle, also called the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or citric acid cycle. This happens within themitochondria, where pyruvate is converted into the two-carbon compound acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and carbon dioxide (CO).2).

The role of this eight-step cycle is to produce more high-energy electron carriers for subsequent reactions: 3 NADH, one FADH.2(reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide) and a GTP (guanosine triphosphate).

(Video) Does glycolysis produce 2 or 4 ATP?

When these enter the electron transport chain in the mitochondrial membrane, a process called oxidative phosphorylation converts the electrons from these high-energy carriers into oxygen molecules, with the end result that 36 (or possibly 38) oxygen molecules of ATP are produced per glucose molecule. upstream."

The much greater efficiency and throughput of aerobic metabolism explains essentially all of the current fundamental differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, with the former having preceded and presumably giving rise to the latter.


What does glycolysis of glucose produce? ›

During glycolysis, glucose ultimately breaks down into pyruvate and energy; a total of 2 ATP is derived in the process (Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi --> 2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 ATP + 2 H2O). The hydroxyl groups allow for phosphorylation.

What energy does glycolysis produce? ›

Glycolysis is a series of reactions that extract energy from glucose by splitting it into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvates.

Where does glycolysis produce? ›

Glycolysis is the process by which glucose is broken down within the cytoplasm of a cell to form pyruvate. Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate can diffuse into mitochondria, where it enters the citric acid cycle and generates reducing equivalents in the form of NADH and FADH2.

What is the output of glycolysis? ›

The output involved in glycolysis is four ATP, two NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen) and two pyruvate molecules.

What are the 3 products of glycolysis? ›

1: Glycolysis produces 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate molecules: Glycolysis, or the aerobic catabolic breakdown of glucose, produces energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and pyruvate, which itself enters the citric acid cycle to produce more energy.

What is the main product in glycolysis *? ›

Pyruvic acid is the end product of glycolysis. Two molecules of pyruvic acid are generated by the partial oxidation of one glucose molecule.

What is the product of glycolysis quizlet? ›

What are the products of glycolysis? The products of glycolysis are 4 ATP (net gain of 2 ATP), 2 pyruvic acid, and 2 NADH.

Does glycolysis produce a lot of ATP? ›

Glycolysis is the process that converts glucose to pyruvate. It produces a total of four ATP, but consumes two ATP, for a net yield of two ATP. Glycolysis is not dependent on the presence of oxygen and can occur in either aerobic or anaerobic environments.

What are the 8 products of glycolysis? ›

The end products of glycolysis are: pyruvic acid (pyruvate), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), protons (hydrogen ions (H2+)), and water (H2O). Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration, the process by which a cell converts nutrients into energy.

What are the 4 products of glycolysis? ›

Glycolysis creates ATP and NADH through substrate level phosphorylation. The net products are 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate molecules. More ATP and high energy electron carriers are produced in the subsequent stages of the metabolic pathway such as pyruvate processing and the citric acid cycle.

Why are 4 ATP produced in glycolysis? ›

First ATP is produced when glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ⇢ 1,3 diphosphoglycerate. Secondly ATP is produced when phosphoenolpyruvate ⇢ pyruvate. These reactions occur twice for both molecules of 3-phosphate. Thus, a total of 4 ATPs are produced during glycolysis.

What is the process of glycolysis? ›

Glycolysis is the process in which glucose is broken down to produce energy. It produces two molecules of pyruvate, ATP, NADH and water. The process takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell and does not require oxygen. It occurs in both aerobic and anaerobic organisms.

What happens in glycolysis in respiration? ›

The first stage of cellular respiration, called glycolysis , takes place in the cytoplasm. In this step, enzymes split a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, which releases energy that is transferred to ATP.

What are the reactions of glycolysis? ›

The overall reaction for glycolysis is: glucose (6C) + 2 NAD+ 2 ADP +2 inorganic phosphates (Pi) yields 2 pyruvate (3C) + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 net ATP. Glycolysis does not require oxygen and can occur under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

What are the 2 main products of anaerobic glycolysis? ›

During high intensity exercise the products of anaerobic glycolysis namely pyruvate and H+ accumulate rapidly. Lactate is formed when one molecule of pyruvate attaches to two H+ ions.

What is the major end product of glycolysis quizlet? ›

Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis, which is converted into acetyl coA that enters the Krebs cycle when there is sufficient oxygen available.

What is the end result of glycolysis quizlet? ›

Glycolysis breaks glucose down to two pyruvate molecules. The final product of glycolysis is oxygen. 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH + H+.

What is an outcome of glycolysis quizlet? ›

What is an outcome of glycolysis? The breakdown of a glucose molecule into two smaller pyruvate molecules.

How many ATP are used glycolysis? ›

During glycolysis, one glucose molecule is split into two pyruvate molecules, using 2 ATP while producing 4 ATP and 2 NADH molecules.

How many ATP and energy are produced in glycolysis? ›

One glucose molecule is metabolised to yield 38 ATP molecules during cellular respiration. The electron transport system produces 34 molecules of ATP out of a total of 38 molecules. During glycolysis, two ATP molecules are created inside the mitochondria and two ATP molecules are produced outside the mitochondria.

Why does glycolysis produce 8 ATP? ›

In the entire process of glycolysis, 2 NADPH molecules also formed. Each NADH produces 3ATP molecules that mean 6 ATP molecules in glycolysis are produced via NADPH. Therefore the total ATP molecules formed are 10ATP as 2ATPs used up in the initial steps, the net gain is 8 ATP molecules. So, the correct answer is '8'.

How many ATP is one NADH equal to? ›

The oxidation of one molecule of NADH thus leads to the synthesis of three molecules of ATP, whereas the oxidation of FADH2, which enters the electron transport chain at complex II, yields only two ATP molecules.

How does glycolysis produce 2 ATP? ›

Results of Glycolysis

The energy to split glucose is provided by two molecules of ATP. As glycolysis proceeds, energy is released, and the energy is used to make four molecules of ATP. As a result, there is a net gain of two ATP molecules during glycolysis.

Where is ATP used in glycolysis? ›

First Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Requiring Steps) In the first half of glycolysis, two adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules are used in the phosphorylation of glucose, which is then split into two three-carbon molecules as described in the following steps.

What is the main role of glycolysis? ›

Glycolysis is important because it is the metabolic pathway through which glucose generates cellular energy. Glucose is the most important source of energy for all living organisms.

What goes in and out of glycolysis? ›

1 Glucose molecule goes into Glycolysis and 2 Pyruvate comes out if oxygen is available, yielding ATP and NADH energy.

What happens to ATP after glycolysis? ›

In the presence of oxygen, the next stage after glycolysis is oxidative phosphorylation, which feeds pyruvate to the Krebs Cycle and feeds the hydrogen released from glycolysis to the electron transport chain to produce more ATP (up to 38 molecules of ATP are produced in this process).

What is the final reaction of glycolysis? ›

The final step of glycolysis converts phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate with the help of the enzyme pyruvate kinase. As the enzyme's name suggests, this reaction involves the transfer of a phosphate group. The phosphate group attached to the 2′ carbon of the PEP is transferred to a molecule of ADP, yielding ATP.

What does glycolysis produce for each glucose quizlet? ›

Glycolysis produces 30 ATP from each molecule of glucose. It converts one glucose molecule to two molecules of pyruvate and carbon dioxide. Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria. It represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell.

How does glycolysis produce ATP? ›

Results of Glycolysis

The energy to split glucose is provided by two molecules of ATP. As glycolysis proceeds, energy is released, and the energy is used to make four molecules of ATP. As a result, there is a net gain of two ATP molecules during glycolysis.

Which of these is not a product of glycolysis? ›

Which of the following are not produced during the reactions of glycolysis? Explanation: The correct answer to this question is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is not produced during glycolysis.

What does glycolysis produce a net gain of? ›

Overall, the process of glycolysis produces a net gain of two pyruvate molecules, two ATP molecules, and two NADH molecules for the cell to use for energy.

Does glycolysis convert ADP to ATP? ›

In Summary: Glycolysis

As ATP is used for energy, a phosphate group is detached, and ADP is produced. Energy derived from glucose catabolism is used to recharge ADP into ATP.

How does glycolysis produce NADH? ›

The sixth step in glycolysis oxidizes the sugar (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate), extracting high-energy electrons, which are picked up by the electron carrier NAD+, producing NADH. The sugar is then phosphorylated by the addition of a second phosphate group, producing 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.


1. Cellular Respiration Part 1: Glycolysis
(Professor Dave Explains)
2. Glycolysis: An Overview
3. Glycolysis TRICK - How to remember GLYCOLYSIS FOREVER !!!
4. Steps of Glycolysis Reactions Explained - Animation - SUPER EASY
(Daily Med Ed)
5. How Much ATP is produced during Glycolysis
(Biotech Review)
6. ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Manual Maggio

Last Updated: 03/26/2023

Views: 6121

Rating: 4.9 / 5 (49 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Manual Maggio

Birthday: 1998-01-20

Address: 359 Kelvin Stream, Lake Eldonview, MT 33517-1242

Phone: +577037762465

Job: Product Hospitality Supervisor

Hobby: Gardening, Web surfing, Video gaming, Amateur radio, Flag Football, Reading, Table tennis

Introduction: My name is Manual Maggio, I am a thankful, tender, adventurous, delightful, fantastic, proud, graceful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.